[360], The rich diversity is in part due to the 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are 5000–7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals. [114], The second event was the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca by Islamist extremists. [564], In February 2017, Saudi Arabia appointed its first woman to head the Saudi Stock Exchange. Cette péninsule de près de deux millions et demi de kilomètres carrés est dominée par un immense désert baptisé Rub al-Khali. [391] In November 2005, Saudi Arabia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organization. [142][490] For many years only two religious holidays were publicly recognized – ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. [224] The two main allegations are that, by its nature, Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism. Pendant deux mois d'hiver, le froid est très vif. Au Yémen, la Microfinance Bank AL-Amal (AMB) est opérationnelle depuis 2009 et est issue de la coopération et du financement du gouvernement du Yémen, du programme du Golfe arabe pour le développement des Nations unies (AGFUND) et d'investisseurs privés. 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Corker: Everything points to Saudis being responsible for missing journalist", Turkish officials have audio and video evidence that shows missing Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey has 'shocking' audio and visual evidence of Saudi journalist's killing, "Saudi Arabia scraps execution for those who committed crimes as minors: Commission", "UN Chief's 'List of Shame' Drops Saudi-Led Coalition", "Saudi Arabia fails to join UN human rights council but Russia and China elected", "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification", "Status of the Arabian leopard in Saudi Arabia", "The Leopard in the Arabian Peninsula – Distribution and Subspecies Status", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Eastern Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Makkah Al-Mokarramah Region, 2014 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Aseer Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Hail Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Al-Riyad Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Al-Qaseem Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Najran Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Tabouk Region, 2013 A.D.", "OPEC Decides Not To Increase Oil Production", "Saudi Arabia's first step towards clean energy technologies", "10 Countries With The Most Natural Resources", "Saudi Arabia Sees Higher Oil Revenue as OPEC Cuts Boost Prices", "OEC – Saudi Arabia (SAU) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners", "Online Education Targets Saudi Arabia's Labor Problem, Starting With Women", "Saudi Arabia doubles private sector jobs in 30-month period", "World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates", "Country Profile Study on Poverty: Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Stock Exchange, Annual Statistical Report 2013", "Saudi Arabia's Four New Economic Cities", "Construction boom of Saudi Arabia and the UAE", "Poverty Hides Amid Saudi Arabia's Oil Wealth", "Mal3ob 3alena : Poverty in Saudi Arabia English Version", "Saudi dissidents turn to YouTube to air their frustrations", "Saudi film-makers enter second week of detention", "A foreign Saudi plot to expose foreign poverty in foreign Saudi", "Poverty exists in Saudi Arabia too | The Observers", "Saudi Arabia's Sovereign Wealth Fund Raises $11 Billion Loan", "Saudi Businesses Are Struggling to Hire Saudi Workers", "Fate of Journalist Heightens Saudi Debt Worries", "Saudi Arabia ends domestic wheat production program", "Largest olive tree farm in Saudi Arabia enters Guinness World Records", "Inside the Saudi olive farm, the largest in the world", "Saudi Arabia Stakes a Claim on the Nile – Water Grabbers – National Geographic", Tourism in Saudi Arabia: Wish you were here, Tourism key to Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 plans, "Saudi Arabia to offer visitor visa for special events from December", "Tourist Visa to Saudi Arabia: Revising Age-Old Policies for Visitors", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Census shows Kingdom's population at more than 27 million", "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision", "Saudi Arabia Population Statistics 2011 (Arabic)", "Saudi Arabia's Youth and the Kingdom's Future", "جريدة الرياض : سكان المملكة 27 مليوناً بينهم 8 ملايين مقيم", Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey, "Religion & Ethics – Islam and slavery: Abolition", "Mapping the Global Muslim Population. In 2018, superstars like John Cena, Kevin Owens and Daniel Bryan refused to fly to Saudi, over the Kingdom's declining human rights records citing Jamal Khashoggi's assassination. [274], In March 2015, Sweden scrapped an arms deal with Saudi Arabia, marking an end to a decade-old defense agreement with the kingdom. Saudi Arabia is considered an "energy superpower". As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. A number of prominent Saudi Arabian princes, government ministers, and businesspeople, including Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, were arrested in Saudi Arabia in November 2017. [citation needed] Fahd made it clear that he did not have democracy in mind: "A system based on elections is not consistent with our Islamic creed, which [approves of] government by consultation [shūrā]. [380][381] On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment. Arabie Saoudite et Emirats Arabes Unis (EAU) sont les deux principales économies du Moyen-Orient.Les deux pays font partie du Conseil de coopération du Golfe (CCG) - une alliance économique et politique établie à Riyad en 1981 entre six pays du Moyen-Orient: Bahreïn, Koweït, Oman, Qatar, Arabie saoudite et Émirats arabes unis. [80], The vast wealth generated by oil revenues was beginning to have an even greater impact on Saudi society. L'Arabie saoudite est un Etat du Sud-Ouest de l'Asie. The capital Riyadh, located in the heart of the country, is supplied with desalinated water pumped from the Persian Gulf over a distance of 467 km. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. Relief, hydrographie, faune et flore et ressources naturelles de l'Arabie Saoudite: Relief. Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam, are systematically suppressed. The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September 2014. "[327], According to the new report from the Department of Global Affairs, Canada sold record-breaking amount of military hardware to Saudi Arabia in 2019, despite its poor human rights record. Superficie : 2 152 000 Km2: Terres cultivées : 2 % Terres inexploitées : 56 % Forêts : 1 % Altitude minimale : 0 m (Golfe Persique) Altitude maximale : 3133 m … [361] This also includes 42 species of deepwater fish. Un massif de granite et de laves de plus de 3 000 mètres se dresse dans l'extrême Sud. At trial, there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense. [541], On 31 October 2019, Saudi Arabia hosted the first ever women's wrestling match held by the World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). [71] The earliest attestation of state regality, King of Lihyan, was in the mid-sixth century BC. It started as a Sheikdom of Dedan, which developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe. [331] He was later released due to intervention by the British government. [409] Tourism is an important component of the Saudi Vision 2030 and according to a report conducted by BMI Research in 2018, both religious and non-religious tourism have significant potential for expansion. Les pays d'Arabie ont recours à des sources non conventionnelles en eau, par dessalement et la réutilisation de l’eau, pour combler la différence entre les ressources en eau douce renouvelables qu'ils ont limitées et la demande en eau. [citation needed] Saudi Arabia spends 8.8% of its gross domestic product on education, compared with the global average of 4.6%. By the 1950s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing. [211][212] [546], Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian" (wali),[546] As of 2008, a woman was required to have permission from her male guardian in order to travel, study, or work. Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce. "[483], Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have "religious police" (known as Haia or Mutaween), who patrol the streets "enjoining good and forbidding wrong" by enforcing dress codes, strict separation of men and women, attendance at prayer (salat) five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia (Islamic law). [114] The government regained control of the mosque after 10 days and those captured were executed. Mohammed Al-Jadaan said that the country will take “painful” measures and keep all options open to deal with the impact. Son territoire, large- ment couvert par le désert du Rub al Khali, est aussi l’un des pays les plus arides de la planète. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track. The Kingdom has, however, stepped up fruit and vegetable production, by improving both agricultural techniques and the roads that link farmers with urban consumers. (2013) Densité 3 796,35 hab./km²: Code postal 11564–12665 : Préfixe téléphonique +966-11 : Fuseau UTC+03:00 : Localisation [citation needed], Saudi Arabia's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia, as well as Islamist terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals. [591] Classes are segregated by sex. [80] In 1975, Faisal was assassinated by his nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musaid and was succeeded by his half-brother King Khalid. In 2017, Saudi Arabia imposed a land, naval and air blockade on Qatar. [271], Following a number of incidents during the Hajj season, the deadliest[272] of which killed at least 2,070 pilgrim[273] in 2015 Mina stampede, Saudi Arabia has been accused of mismanagement and focusing on increasing money revenues while neglecting pilgrims' welfare. [127] No political reforms were announced as part of the package, though some prisoners indicted for financial crimes were pardoned. There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous. [104] With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913. [419] Most Saudis live in the Hejaz (35%), Najd (28%), and the Eastern Province (15%). [236][237][238][239] In the first decade of the 21st century the Saudi Arabia paid approximately $100 million to American firms to lobby the U.S. The facility raised concerns among the US and allied officials about Saudi nuclear energy plans and the country’s option of developing nuclear weapon. Animals such as gazelles, oryx, leopards and cheetahs[359] were relatively numerous until the 19th century, when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction. [193], Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments (either his own or of other judges) and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases,[194] making predictability of legal interpretation difficult. [373][374] It also has the fifth-largest proven natural gas reserves. [142], The Academic Ranking of World Universities, known as Shanghai Ranking, ranked 4 of Saudi Arabian institutions among its 2016–2017 list of the 980 top universities in the world. Cette région fait partie du Moyen-Orient et joue un rôle géopolitique fondamental, du fait de ses importantes réserves de pétrole et de gaz naturel. [329] Human Rights Watch, in a 2008 report, noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in 2002, but it lacked some basic protections and, in any case, had been routinely ignored by judges. Challenges to the Saudi economy include halting or reversing the decline in per-capita income, improving education to prepare youth for the workforce and providing them with employment, diversifying the economy, stimulating the private sector and housing construction, and diminishing corruption and inequality. [63] Mesopotamian inscribed clay tablets suggests that, in the early period of Dilmun, a form of hierarchical organized political structure existed. Ils sont donc pour l'essentiel musulmans de rite sunnite issus pour la plupart de l'école hanafite. According to the United Nations, the Arabian peninsula nation is home to the world's worst humanitarian crisis. [23][24] Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca) and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam. In 1991, Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait. During the 1992 FIFA Confederations Cup, which was played in Saudi Arabia, the country reached the final, losing 1–3 to Argentina. [315] On 20 October 2010, the US State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history—an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [195] The Sharia court system constitutes the basic judiciary of Saudi Arabia and its judges (qadi) and lawyers form part of the ulema, the country's Islamic scholars. [495], Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events. Elle comprend sept États[2][source insuffisante] : l'Arabie saoudite, le Yémen, Oman, le Qatar, les Émirats arabes unis, le Koweït, et Bahreïn. [55], There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 125,000 years ago. Saudi Arabia is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention. Proponents call the movement "Salafism",[444] and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions. [63], By 2200 BC, the centre of Dilmun shifted for unknown reasons from Tarout and the Saudi Arabian mainland to the island of Bahrain, and a highly developed settlement emerged there, where a laborious temple complex and thousands of burial mounds that dates to this period were discovered. Al-Magar could be considered as a "Neolithic Revolution" in human knowledge and handicraft skills. Saudi Arabia has the world's second-largest proven petroleum reserves and the country is the largest exporter of petroleum. Il ne faut pas oublier les forts écarts de revenus existant dans cette région, avec un clivage net entre ceux qui bénéficient directement des revenus du pétrole et une tranche de la population qui évolue dans une forte pauvreté. [393] The King has announced that the per capita income is forecast to rise from $15,000 in 2006 to $33,500 in 2020. [567] Women were allowed to vote and be candidates in the 12 December 2015 municipal elections. [159] The following year Prince Nayef also died before ascending to the throne. 98 % du territoire est désertique ou semi-désertique. "[305] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing. [302] Indeed, Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia;[303] in ISIL-occupied Raqqa, in mid-2014, all 12 judges were Saudi. D'une superficie de 2,149,690 km²; ce pays occupe la plus grande partie de la péninsule Arabique, située entre entre le golfe Arabo-Persique et la Mer Rouge. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units. La population autochtone est très majoritairement formée de tribus de Bédouins de culture arabe qui feront de l'Arabie le berceau de l'une des religions monothéistes qu'est Islam, dont les deux plus grandes villes saintes, La Mecque et Médine, se trouvent dans le Hedjaz, à l'ouest de la péninsule. In 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system,[194] and, in 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions. Il existe un « Global Islamic Microfinance Forum » dont la troisième édition est prévue pour octobre 2013[13].La microfinance a pour but de permettre l'accès à des services financiers adaptés (crédits, épargne, assurance, transferts de fonds...) aux exclus bancaires dans le but de développer une activité génératrice de revenus. [576], As of February 2018, Saudi women can now open their own business, without a male's permission. [543], Only two years after Saudi Arabia signed a contract of 10 years with WWE, an increasing number of wrestlers denied to visit Riyadh. [400], Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the 1970s. [49] Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in 2015 and an Arab common market[218] by 2020, as announced at the 2009 Arab League summit. Drapeau saoudien. Saudi Arabia officially has about 260 billion barrels (4.1×1010 m3) of oil reserves, comprising about one-fifth of the world's proven total petroleum reserves. Une des solutions qui tend à se développer est la microfinance. There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities. مركز; markaz). (source: the time varying according to sunrise and sunset times, largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory, discrimination against religious minorities, Ottoman era in the history of Saudi Arabia, dispute with Transjordan over the inclusion of the sanjak of Ma'an, municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011, invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990, Saudi Arabia and state-sponsored terrorism, Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 110 billion dollar arms deal with the United States, fifth-largest proven natural gas reserves, Increases in oil prices in the early 2000s, Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority, Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia, conversion by Muslims to another religion, Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia, UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list, Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage, Universities and colleges being founded particularly since 2000, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, "Religious Composition of the Persian Gulf States (summary). [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to modern-day Pakistan in the East) in a matter of decades. The creation of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in 2003, an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters. This radical teaching takes place in Saudi funded mosques and madrasas across the Islamic world from Morocco to Pakistan to Indonesia. [63], By the late Bronze Age, a historically recorded people and land (Midian and the Midianites) in the north-western portion of Saudi Arabia are well-documented in the Bible. The governorates are further subdivided into sub-governorates (Arabic: مراكز‎; marakiz, sing. [577], In March 2018, a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits. [420] Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia. [284] More than 50,000 children in Yemen died from starvation in 2017. A number of Muslims, using justifications from the Quran, طرق التجارة القديمة، روائع آثار المملكة العربية السعودية pp. Known records from Uruk refer to a place called Dilmun, associated in several occasions with copper and in later period it was a source of imported woods in southern Mesopotamia. [171] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery. [279], Saudi Arabia halted new trade and investment dealings with Canada and suspended diplomatic ties in a dramatic escalation of a dispute over the kingdom's arrest of women's rights activist Samar Badawi on 6 August 2018. As of 2016, in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended. However, nepotism and patronage are widespread when doing business in the country. [383], In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the Blue Hole (Red Sea) at Dahab). [72] The second stage of the kingdom saw the transformation of Dedan from a mere city-state of which only influence they exerted was inside their city walls, to a kingdom that encompass much wider domain that marked the pinnacle of Lihyan civilization. [594][595], According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis[596] and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from the Sinai (Egypt) in the north-west by the Gulf of Aqaba. [381], The religious police, known as the mutawa, impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. [217] It plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization. [79] The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in about 571 CE. [196] Extra-Sharia government tribunals usually handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees. With the first phase of Saudization into effect, 70% of sales job are expected to be filled by Saudis. Arabie saoudite: Région Province de Riyad : Superficie 1 554 km²: Population 5 899 528 hab. [60] Aside from horses, animals such as sheep, goats, dogs, in particular of the Saluki race, ostriches, falcons and fish were discovered in the form of stone statues and rock engravings. [484]), Until 2016, the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar, not the international Gregorian calendar,[485] but in 2016 the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. La péninsule arabique est traversée par le tropique du Cancer. Autrefois, la péninsule était attachée à l’Afrique, mais elle s’est lentement éloignée en pivotant dans le sens contraire des aiguilles d’une montre. Le pays de Arabie saoudite se situe dans le continent de Asie. Aménagement des zones protégées au royaume d'Arabie saoudite. Le Royaume d'Arabie Saoudite recouvre près de 45 % de la péninsule arabique. [223] There has been an intense debate over whether Saudi aid and Wahhabism has fomented extremism in recipient countries. 2019) Superficie (km 2) 2 149 690 The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons, usually occurring between October and March. Géographie de l'Arabie saoudite : nom officiel, capitale, principales villes en Arabie saoudite, superficie (2.149.690,00 km²), climat (L'Arabie saoudite a un climat désertique. [66] The capital of Midian was Qurayyah,[67] it consists of a large fortified citadel encompassing 35 hectares and below it lies a walled settlement of 15 hectares. (Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,[458] and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.) [173] Saudi Arabia has undergone a process of political and social reform, such as to increase public transparency and good governance. Face à la montée des islamistes radicaux, elle prône une approche modérée. In January 2020, several other WWE superstars casted doubt over visiting Saudi, following the heightened tensions in Middle East due to assassination of Qassem Soleimani. [68] The Midianites were depicted in two major events in the Bible that recount Israel's two wars with Median, somewhere in the early 11th century BC. [491]), As of 2004[update], approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. La plupart du territoire de l'Arabie saoudite est couverte par les déserts, c'est un pays avec des ressources d'eau douce très rares; mais il y a un développement agricole rapide : la superficie agricole sur cette terre a atteint plus de 3 millions d'hectares de terres, l'autosuffisance alimentaire est assurée.