Deng then began a new phase of China by initiating the historic Reforms and Opening-Up program. [1997] (1997). Cependant, il devient de plus en plus impopulaire dans l'armée et se heurte à l'hostilité de Zhou Enlai. [111], Much like the post-Great Leap restructuring led by Liu Shaoqi, Deng streamlined the railway system, steel production, and other vital areas of the economy. "[88] Lin delivered the keynote address at the Congress: a document drafted by hardliner leftists Yao Wenyuan and Zhang Chunqiao under Mao's guidance. [155][171] From 1968–1969, more than 17,000 people died in massacres and 61,000 people were crippled for life; in Kunming (the capital city of Yunnan) alone, 1,473 people were killed and 9,661 people were permanently disabled. Pat Nixon in China.jpg 690 × 472; 184 KB. He insisted that revisionists be removed through violent class struggle, to which China's youth, as well as urban workers, responded by forming Red Guards and "rebel groups" around the country. [35], The work teams were hastily dispatched and had a poor understanding of student sentiment. See all articles by Roland Clere Roland Clere. Celle-ci est alors arrêtée par des militaires après avoir été brutalisée. En octobre de la même année il doit faire son autocritique. De plus, l'armée lui apporte son soutien inconditionnel avec Lin Biao à sa tête. 0. On August 1, the Eleventh Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee was hastily convened to advance Mao's now decidedly radical agenda. Biography. His revolutionary philosophies found adherents in the Shining Path of Peru, the Naxalite insurgency in India, various political movements in Nepal, the U.S.-based Black Panther Party,[262] and the 1960s counterculture movement in general. Lidee dune revolution industrielle, cest-a-dire dun bouleversement soudain de tous les modes de production e… », « Mais c’est pendant la révolution culturelle, période la plus destructrice de la Chine contemporaine, que le summum des persécutions contre toute forme de croyance et de pratiques religieuses fut atteint. Some of them we have already seen through; others we have not. Although there is evidence that much of the destruction of religious institutions during the Cultural Revolution was in fact actually carried out by Red Guards of Tibetan ethnicity, it has since been laid entirely at the Chinese door. Ferdinand, Peter. La majorité de ses interlocuteurs, lors de son voyage de 1971, « ont gardé le souvenir d'un cauchemar dont l'angoisse se reflète encore dans le regard »[22]. 194–204 in. Mao divise pour régner et soutient les idéologues de la Bande des Quatre. [103], Lin's son, Lin Liguo, and other high-ranking military conspirators formed a coup apparatus in Shanghai and dubbed the plan to oust Mao by force Outline for Project 571, which sounds similar to "Military Uprising" in Mandarin. From 1968 to 1969, the "Cleansing the Class Ranks", a massive political purge launched by Mao, caused the deaths of at least 500,000 people. Deng was formally stripped of all positions "inside and outside the Party" on April 7. La période de chaos qui s'ensuit mène la Chine au bord de la guerre civile, avant que la situation ne soit peu à peu reprise en main par l'Armée populaire de libération qui mène une féroce répression contre le mouvement des gardes rouges. Et, en l’espèce, plutôt des tubes métalliques ! "[7][8], In 1958, after China's first Five-Year Plan, Mao called for "grassroots socialism" in order to accelerate his plans for turning China into a modern industrialized state. Ceux qui voulaient que la révolution s'arrête, et ceux qui voulaient aller plus loin vers le communisme. Mao indique en septembre que « rien d'essentiel ne divise la classe ouvrière ». In the play, an honest civil servant, Hai Rui, is dismissed by a corrupt emperor. En route, l’avion se serait écrasé en Mongolie, tuant tous ses occupants. The Power of Words: literacy and revolution in South China, 1949–95. Paper 31. In Shanghai, a young factory worker named Wang Hongwen organized a far-reaching revolutionary coalition, one that galvanized and displaced existing Red Guard groups. Nie's call-to-arms, now sealed with Mao's personal stamp of approval, had a lasting ripple effect across all educational institutions in China. [200] During the Cultural Revolution, basic education was emphasized and rapidly expanded. Cette organisation pour la libération algérienne est établie pour lutter contre [108] Its stated goals were to purge China of new Confucianist thinking and denounce Lin Biao's actions as traitorous and regressive. C’est en refondant ainsi le droit et la morale que l’homme germanique a cru pouvoir agir conformément à ce que commandait sa survie. Mao would deliver his final blow to Peng Zhen at a high-profile Politburo meeting through loyalists Kang Sheng and Chen Boda. Le 18 août 1966, du haut de Tian'anmen, Mao et Lin Biao firent de fréquentes apparitions pour se faire acclamer par environ un million de gardes rouges[29]. [91], Mao's efforts at re-organizing party and state institutions generated mixed results. À l'automne 1973, les radicaux perdent le contrôle des campagnes et Zhou Enlaï peut alors « critiquer et rejeter l'héritage de la révolution culturelle » et met à son tour en accusation les radicaux[58]. Il a amené le pays à l'état de guerre civile[78],[91]. [123], Although Hua Guofeng publicly denounced the Gang of Four in 1976, he continued to invoke Mao's name to justify Mao-era policies. Le journaliste chinois Yang Jisheng précise que Liu Shaoqi, prenant conscience des conséquences de la Grande famine, dit à Mao : « Avec autant de morts de faim, l'Histoire retiendra nos deux noms et le cannibalisme sera aussi dans les livres »[16]. La Révolution culturelle a duré dix ans, de 1966 jusqu’à la mort de Mao Zedong, en 1976. Gao, Gao. [275], Maoist sociopolitical movement intended to strengthen Chinese Communism, This article is about the Chinese sociocultural movement. Les armes utilisées dans les conflits armés comprenaient quelque 18,77 millions (certains disent 1,877 million[92]) d’armes à feu, 2,72 millions de grenades, 14 828 canons, des millions d’autres munitions et même des voitures blindées et des chars[78]. Some changes associated with the "Four Olds" campaign were mainly benign, such as assigning new names to city streets, places, and even people; millions of babies were born with "revolutionary"-sounding names during this period. Cependant, le caractère abscons de ses écrits entraîna des conflits incessants quant à leur interprétation, les conservateurs comme les rebelles empruntant aux enseignements de Mao pour atteindre des buts divergents. »[11]. de Rémy Rieffel @inproceedings{Besson2014RvolutionNR, title={R{\'e}volution num{\'e}rique, r{\'e}volution culturelle ? En décembre 1978, Deng Xiaoping est devenu le chef de file suprême de la Chine. Estimates include those given by the following: During the Cultural Revolution, massacres took place across mainland China, including: These massacres were mainly led and organized by local revolutionary committees, Communist Party branches, militia, and even the military. Ainsi, des groupes d'ouvriers, soutenus par l'armée et les autorités locales, s'opposent à des groupes maoïstes. He subsequently returned to Beijing on a mission to criticize the party leadership for its handling of the work-teams issue. "[208], Sinologists Lowell Dittmer and Chen Ruoxi point out that the Chinese language had historically been defined by subtlety, delicacy, moderation, and honesty, as well as the "cultivation of a refined and elegant literary style. In May 1966, an "expanded session" of the Politburo was called in Beijing. In A New Jersey Anthology Edited and compiled by Maxine N. Lurie. Même s'il reste officiellement à la tête du Parti communiste chinois (PCC), Mao est peu à peu éloigné de la gestion des affaires économiques du pays, gestion confiée à une élite plus modérée, essentiellement dirigée par Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping et quelques autres. 191-236, 1969. In Inner Mongolia, some 790,000 people were persecuted during the Inner Mongolia incident. [240] After the most violent phase of the 1960s ended, the attack on traditional culture continued in 1973 with the Anti-Lin Biao, Anti-Confucius Campaign as part of the struggle against the moderate elements in the party. It also served to spread revolutionary ideology across China geographically.[75]. [9], Although no names were mentioned, this provocative statement by Mao has been interpreted as a direct indictment of the party establishment under Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping—the purported "bourgeois headquarters" of China. Hua used this message to substantiate his position as successor. In 1969, Mao suggested the end of the Cultural Revolution. Les deux hommes s'affrontent, d'abord dans un conflit masqué puis ouvertement lors de la révolution culturelle. Focsaneanu LAZAR, Les textes fondamentaux de l’idéologie politique chinoise à l’époque de la révolution culturelle, Politique étrangère, n°2, pp. During the Cultural Revolution, the Communist China exported the "Communist Revolution" as well as the Communist ideology to multiple countries in Southeast Asia, supporting the communist parties in Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and in particular, the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia which was responsible for the Cambodian genocide. La police et la milice de Jiang Qing chargent les manifestants qui doivent se replier de la place. The extensive Organization Department, in charge of party personnel, virtually ceased to exist. [24], Having ousted Luo and Yang, Mao returned his attention to Peng Zhen. Skip to main content. Découvrez les quinze dates clés de l’histoire qui se déroule sous vos yeux au Grand Palais dans l’exposition Rouge ! The consensus within the Politburo was that Mao should assume the office with Lin becoming Vice-Chairman; but for unknown reasons, Mao had voiced his explicit opposition to the recreation of the position and his assuming it. Par contre, l'armée n'apporte pas son « soutien à la gauche maoïste », jugée sectaire et trop radicale, et préfère protéger les « groupes rebelles conservateurs » proche du pouvoir. On May 14, 1967, the CCP central committee issued a document entitled Several suggestions for the protection of cultural relics and books during the Cultural Revolution. Badges and wall posters featuring the mangoes and Mao were produced in the millions. Nous devons extirper énergiquement la pensée, la culture, les mœurs et coutumes anciennes de toutes les classes exploiteuses. Outre les artistes, la révolution culturelle se transmet par l'intermédiaire des humanistes, porteurs de nouvelles idées. Our hope is placed on you.… The world belongs to you. Many revolutionary committees visited the mangoes in Beijing from outlying provinces; approximately half a million people greeted the replicas when they arrived in Chengdu. In 1981, the Communist Party of China declared that the Cultural Revolution was "responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party, the country, and the people since the founding of the People's Republic. [46] Mao personally mingled with Red Guards and encouraged their motivation, donning a Red Guard armband himself. At least hundreds of thousands of people were murdered, starved, or worked to death. La révolution culturelle de 1968. Une fois Lin Biao et ses partisans éliminés, la lutte s'intensifie entre les « idéologues » de la Bande des Quatre emmenés par Jiang Qing et les « pragmatiques » rassemblés autour de Zhou Enlai. Mao wanted to use Deng as a counterweight to the military faction in government to suppress any remaining influence of those formerly loyal to Lin Biao. More information: French equivalent / Équivalent français; Reviews. Woeser explique : « Les plus jeunes, souvent, croyaient vraiment à la propagande de Mao. À partir de l'Août rouge de Pékin, des massacres ont lieu à plusieurs endroits, notamment le massacre de Guangxi (un cannibalisme massif s'est produit), de Mongolie-Intérieure, de Guangdong, de cas d'espionnage de Zhao Jianmin, de Daoxian et de Shadian. Une campagne se prépare contre lui, accusé de s'être servi des idéaux réactionnaires de Confucius. In order to eliminate his rivals within the CPC and in schools, factories, and government institutions, Mao charged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society with the aim of restoring capitalism. By Simon Leys. It also separated Mao's personal mistakes from the correctness of the theory that he created, going as far as to rationalize that the Cultural Revolution contravened the spirit of Mao Zedong Thought, which remains an official guiding ideology of the Party. Isolé dans le parti communiste et dans l'appareil de État, Mao Zedong, appuyé par Lin Biao, le chef de l'armée chinoise, lance la révolution culturelle à l'automne 1965. Lin Biao was elevated to become the Party's number-two figure; Liu Shaoqi's rank went from second to eighth and was no longer Mao's heir apparent. Chen Zaidao, the Army general in charge of the area, forcibly repressed the anti-establishment demonstrators who were backed by Mao. @prefix void: . By Jean Daubier. De plus, des millions de personnes en Chine ont été violemment persécutées, en particulier lors des « séance de lutte ». Découvrez les quinze dates clés de l’histoire qui se déroule sous vos yeux au Grand Palais dans l’exposition Rouge ! [17], In 1963, Mao launched the Socialist Education Movement, which is regarded as the precursor of the Cultural Revolution. [180] There were an estimated 600,000 monks and nuns in Tibet in 1950, and by 1979, most of them were dead, imprisoned or had disappeared. [citation needed], In late 1973, to weaken Zhou's political position and to distance themselves from Lin's apparent betrayal, the "Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius" campaign began under Jiang Qing's leadership. [109] Reminiscent of the first years of the Cultural Revolution, the battle was carried out through historical allegory, and although Zhou Enlai's name was never mentioned during this campaign, the Premier's historical namesake, the Duke of Zhou, was a frequent target.